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  Building the hull | Sanding & Painting | Masts & Rigging

Building the Hull
Position the frames at right angles to the keel. Next mount the deck and bulkhead. When dry, sand the frames to taper. This ensures both a larger surface and a better positioning of the planking strips.
Planking the hull can be done in a number of ways. Here we have chosen to start by applying the first strip so that it follows the upper edge of the deck. Apply glue to each frame and the upper edge of the strip, and hold the strip in place with pins until dry. Proceed planking the hull downwards, shifting from side to side in order to avoid any misalignments as the strips are applied. Each strip should be cut or sanded conically to fit the shape of the hull when gently placed on the frame. Do not force the strip into position.
Sanding & Painting
The appearance of the hull is of great importance for the appearance of the final model. Time spent carefully sanding and painting will be rewarded with a hull, which is completely smooth, with no dents or cracks.
Prime the hull with ground color. Sand, and fill out with putty. Sand again, and continue this process until all irregularities or cracks no longer can be seen.
Paint the model with oil paint, and fill out with putty again. Sand once again and then paint the model.
When the paint is completely dry mark off the waterline around the entire hull, as can be seen on the main drawing. Set tape along the line, which will allow you to paint the bottom part of the hull with no risk of mixing the two colors. Do not remove the tape until the paint is completely dry.
Models of older ships with a wooden hull are usually stained instead of painted. Sand carefully; do not use putty.
Masts & Rigging

If the masts are to be painted or stained, it is a good idea to do this before assembly. After assembling the masts, mount the various fittings. Follow the same procedure with the yards. If the model has sails, sew these, then affix blocks and rigging thread. Attach the sails to the yards. Next, mount the masts in the hull and affix shrouds and stays. Attach the sails and yards to the mast. An attractive appearance can be achieved by rubbing the rigging threads with wax.
The manner of sizing the rigging based on the beam of the ship, the diameter and length of the mast, and the thickness of the mast's stays will be touched on later.
The general term masting a ship refers to the placement of the mast. How far from the bow the first mast (foremast) will stand is carefully calculated. How far apart the others (if any) will be placed in order to impart the greatest power in pushing the ship through the water then can be determined.
Masting and rigging also changed with these advances in the modern shipwright's applications. Master were soon made of steel, and hemp was replaced by wire rope. The terms changed. The shipwright became a designer. The designer became a naval architect.
One of the hardest things to explain when viewing some models is the rigging just doesn't look right. The fault often lies in the fact that the rigging has been overstated - that is to say, it is too thick. Often this is the result of the kit manufacturer who includes too little line of graduated sizes, or the modeler building from scratch who does not understand the rules of rigging.
Basically, running rigging consists of a rope, a block or series of blocks, a fixed end and a loose end.